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The first is the amount of milk produced per day and per lactation period. The other aspect, which is as important, is the type of milk produced. The mainstay of the desert nomad's food is camels' milk, which is consumed fresh or when just soured Mares,Gast et al. Data on the actual amount of milk produced by camels are not very accurate for judging the milk-giving capabilities of camels.
Calves must be allowed to drink; therefore, the herder and his family must share with the calf the milk produced by the herd.
How much the calf drinks certainly varies with its size, age, and health. The amount of grazing and water available to the camel will also determine the amount suckled, and the total produced.
The camel, like the cow, has a four-quartered udder. It is firmly suspended from the abdomen, without deep cuts Sharma, Photo 4. There are four teats, each having two orifices. The two-humped Bactrian camel is used mostly as a working animal Dong Wei, The lactation period is 14—16 months, and the amount of daily milk production averages 5 kg per animal; although some animals can give as much as 15—20 kg per day. Normally, only about 2 kg are milked; the rest is suckled by the calf. Camel uddr.
Punjab, Pakistan. Knoess, K. The dromedary gave more milk than the Bactrian or the hybrids Table 2. The hybrid - Kazakh - gave more milk than the hybrid Turmein. The lactation period was 18 months. Most of the milk was produced in the first seven months of lactation, from spring, throughout summer, until Autumn. This was correlated with the availability of fodder. Grazing in Winter is difficult, because of snow. The second lactation yield was far greater than the first, and in each following lactation more milk is produced. The estimated milk yield between the third and sixth months of lactation was — 1 kg Kulaeva, Slightly more milk was received from the back-quarter, From the sixth month of pregnancy the amount of milk declined.
With good stall feeding the same amounts of milk were received as with grazing animals. This would be of great importance if a steady and balanced diet could be supplied to the animals throughout the year. When the animals are hand-milked the milker stands on one leg and balances the milking bowl on his bent left leg. The left hand holds the bowl, while the camel is milked with the right hand. Another method is to tie the bowl around the milker's neck so it hangs low enough to be held while the camel is being milked.
Camels have successfully been machine milked. Liners of The animals were gradually changed from hand to machine milking in the presence of their calves. The cell-count of milk of hand-milked camels was lower than that of machine-milked camels Kospakov, In the vast dry areas between the Caspian Sea and the Balkash Lake the camel is, and can be, of great nutritional importance. In Kazakstan, milk and milk products for up to 90 percent of the daily staple diet.
The camel is the most important provider of milk. Thirty-seven percent of all milk comes from the camel; 30 percent from sheep; 23 percent from the Yak and only 10 percent from cows. Little is known women being milked the milk production of these members of the camel family. The alpaca, when kept on good pasture, can women being milked up to 0. In the Horn of Africa, milking of camels is not only an act of work, but has become an integral part of the local culture and heritage.
Only boys, unmarried women or ritually clean men are allowed to milk the animals Hartley, No treatment of the milk is allowed. The milk is either consumed fresh or when just soured. In some tribes the herdboys subsist on camel milk alone. They drink water only after the camels are watered. Two teats are left for the calf, while the other two are milked-out for the tent dwellers. These latter two teats are tied up with soft bark fibres. The colostrum is not drunk, but is either given to the calf although it is thought to be bad for the young camel Field,or spilled onto the ground.
This certainly represents women being milked bad practice since the colostrum contains large amounts of absorbable antibodies.
The camels are milked twice a day; before dawn and at night. The average milk production is about 1 kg, i. Weaning is carried out when the calves are 9—11 months old. A leather band with protruding thorns is placed on the calf's women being milked in such a way that the dam is pricked every time the calf attempts to suckle; the dan thus quickly moves away. In North Kenya the camels produce far more milk than the local cows.
The Sakuye camel produces an average of 4 kg milk daily with a maximum of 12 kg. The cow produces 0. Camels lactate for about a year. In areas with only one rainy season lactation finishes at the end of the dry season; this is thought to be caused by the shortage of feed during this period. In areas of northern Kenya, where the nom subsist almost entirely on camel milk, there are two rainy period.
Field a and b reported lactation studies lasting three lactations. The duration of lactation was 47—67 weeks. Lactation ended 4—8 weeks following conception. Daily milk production reached 21 kg in the first week, declining to 4.
There was an average daily milk yield of 13 kg for the first 10 weeks 1. Total production averaged 1 kg per animal. In the lactation studies the lowest milk yields were those given by camels without calves. These animals also had much shorter lactation periods, even though they were milked 5—7 times a day. Four milkings per day yielded more milk women being milked twice a day milkings: seven liters compared with six Evans and Powys, ; Shalash, The camel is known to be capable of producing large quantities of milk under extensive and intensive management Knoess, Knoess rightly stresses the fact that as the camels are not intensively milked, but some milk is left for their calves, the exact amount is difficult to assess.
Milk trials in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia were carried out for six days in various stages of lactation Knoess, As suckling stimulus is an integral part of milk production Yagil et al.
Even so, eight liters in two milkings, or 2 kg over days were obtained. The daily average for twice-a-day milking was estimated at 7 kg. These animals grazed on irrigated pastures. Under rainfed conditions, 13 kg per day can be milked Knoess, It was found that some days the camels were milked 6—8 times a day, while other days they were not milked at all.
This certainly would make the milk supply lower than if the animals were milked regularly each day. In the dry season the milk yield was about half that of the rainy season. This could be due to the lack of feed or to advanced stages of pregnancy Lakosa, The lactation period is between 8—18 months Mares, a.
The length of lactation depends on when the lactating dam is remated. The average daily yield in milk is 5 kg with a total yield of 1 kg. The amount of milk drunk by the calf is regulated by tying up one or more teats Mares, a. The amount the calf is allowed is determined by its needs and the milking capacity of the mother. Camels are milked twice a day; just after sunrise and at least two hours after sunset.
Calves run with their mothers but are penned separately at night. From the age of six weeks they graze. When calves have finished suckling the amount left for consumption by the tent dwellers can vary from 1 to 4 kg Epstein, If a calf dies, the dam dries up if milking is not stimulated Mares, a.
For this a foster calf or conditioning of the mother is necessary. Often arranging for the dam to see the skin of her dead calf is enough to stimulate let-down of milk. Fostering is done in three ways: 1 The foster calf is covered with the skin women being milked the dead calf and allowed to suckle until the milk is flowing and the dam can be hand-milked.
When the clamp is released, and the pain thus removed, the calf is presented for suckling. This is usually anough for the dam to allow the foster-calf to suckle. The nom of the Ahaggar in the Sahara depend on milk to given them a balanced diet Gast et al. Of course the camel is only one of the providers of milk. Goats, sheep and cows supply milk and milk products.Women being milked
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